Archaeologists often find it useful for research purposes to segment the past into archaeological "cultures" or phases, based on the occurrence of specific artifacts or artifact characteristics within a relatively brief interval of time and over a relatively limited geographical area. Within the Eno River valley where the Fredricks site is located, archaeologists have identified four sequential phases for the period of Native American occupation after A.D. 1000 and prior to European settlement in the mid-1700s. They are: the Haw River phase (A.D. 1000-1400), the Hillsboro phase (A.D. 1400-1600), the Jenrette phase (A.D. 1600-1680), and the Fredricks phase (A.D. 1680-1710).

The Fredricks phase defines the archaeological remains of the Occaneechi after they moved from the Roanoke River to the Eno River following Bacon's Rebellion in 1676. The definition of this phase is based on the archaeological research conducted by the University of North Carolina at the Fredricks site. This site is thought to be "Achonechy Town" that was visited and briefly described by John Lawson in 1701 (Lefler 1967:61).

The archaeological excavation at the Fredricks site revealed a fortified settlement that covered a little over a quarter of an acre (see excavation plan). The settlement consisted of multiple houses arranged around an open courtyard, within which was a sweat lodge. In and around the houses were many storage pits. The entire village was surrounded by a defensive wall or palisade. A cemetery was located to the northeast, just outside the village wall (see detailed maps: northeast quadrant, southeast quadrant, southwest quadrant, northwest quadrant).