Although the Fredricks phase represents a time of dramatic disruption and upheaval, a surprising degree of continuity is reflected in the subsistence data. As with the preceding Jenrette phase (A.D. 1600-1680), the peltry trade and the introduction of European tools and trinkets seem to have had a minimal impact on the day-to-day subsistence of the Occaneechi. Deer continued to be the favorite meat source, supplemented by turkey, fish, turtle, and various small mammals. Only one bone each of pig and horse attest to the European presence (Holm 1987:245). The only evidence of the use of Old World plants during the Fredricks phase consists of a single watermelon seed and numerous peach pits, both probably introduced indirectly by the Spanish (Gremillion 1989a).