Stone Tools

Despite the introduction and widespread use of European-made weapons and metal tools during the Fredricks phase, the overall character of the Fredricks lithic artifact assemblage conforms to a generalized stone-tool tradition that can be traced back to at least the beginning of the Late Prehistoric period. Small triangular projectile points continued to be made and used to tip arrows, and other tasks such as hideworking, woodworking, plant food processing, and possibly bone working still employed stone tools such as bifacial drills, perforators, gravers, scrapers, utilized and retouched flakes, manos, and milling stones. Interestingly, comparatively fewer stone tools were recovered from the Fredricks site, and those that were found displayed considerable variability in both form and raw material. Although this may be due in part to sample contamination from earlier occupations at the adjacent Jenrette and Hogue sites, it also may reflect recycling of both tools and raw materials from these and other sites. Many projectile points were similar in size and raw material to those recovered from earlier features at the Hogue site. Recycling is not unique to the Fredricks phase, but is reflected in most Piedmont lithic assemblages that date to the Late Prehistoric or Contact periods.