Lawson listed over 110 birds that could be found in North Carolina at the time of his journey (Lefler 1967:140-141). Of these, the turkey and the passenger pigeon were the most important to the Indians as sources of food. Turkey bones were also made into many different kinds of tools (e.g., awls and beamers) and ornaments (e.g., beads). Turkey feathers were used by Southeastern Indians in making feather mantles and fans, and in feathering arrows. Arrow points were also manufactured from turkey spurs (Swanton 1946:251). Turkey meat was offered as food to Lawson so often that it eventually "began to be loathsome" (Lefler 1967:34).
Although the passenger pigeon is now extinct, Lawson's description provides a vivid picture of this bird and the way it was hunted and used by the Indians.
Pigeons . . . were so numerous in these parts that you might see many Millions in a flock. . . . You may find several Indian Towns, of not above 17 Houses, that have more than 100 Gallons of Pigeons Oil, or Fat; they using it with Pulse, or Bread, as we do Butter. . . . The Indians take a Light, and go amongst them in the Night, and bring away some thousands, killing them with long Poles, as they roost in the Trees. At this time of the Year, the Flocks, as they pass by, obstruct the Light of the Day. (Lefler 1967:50-51)
Another bird identified in the faunal assemblages from the Wall and Fredricks sites is the bobwhite quail. This bird was probably an important source of food and it also provided feathers which could have been used for clothing and decoration. Other birds identified from the faunal assemblages include sparrows, killdeer, bluejay, great horned owl, woodpecker, and lesser scaup. Of these only the lesser scaup could be considered, with any certainty, to have been used for food. Lesser scaup is also the only bird identified in the faunal assemblage that was not mentioned by Lawson.
It is important to note that Lawson stated that "all small game, such as Turkeys, Ducks, and small Vermine, they [the Indians] commonly kill with Bow and Arrow, thinking it not worth throwing Powder and Shot after them" (Lefler 1967:216).